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APA Citation - South Bend-Elkhart: Citing Sources: Website

Website Citations

Before you decide on what website to use in your research, take a look at the Website Evaluation Guide.

Internet Sources are difficult to cite because the information available is not consistent. When creating your citation, follow the citation guidelines and use as much information as you have.  
Only capitalize the first word of the document title. If there is a colon in the title, capitalize the first word after the colon.

Vol., issue, and pages may not always be available on Internet sources.  If pagination in electronic references is unavailable, leave out of the citation.  

URL: It's OK to use the wholde URL if it is a dificult website to find. Break a URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period.

No period after URL address is required.

No retrieval date is needed unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis).

Things to Remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.

Italics : The name of a stand-alone web page should not be in italics.  If referencing an entry in a larger work, such as an online encyclopedia or dictionary, the title of the book should be in italics but the title of the entry should not.

Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and

        globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2.)

  APA Resources - websites

The following links are sources to guide you in the correct citation of your references. The APA Style Guide was updated in 2010, but contained many mistakes. If you encounter questions, the librarians are glad to assist you. The APA Style Manual is Ivy Tech's official citation style. However, your instructor may have special instructions for an assignment. ALWAYS check with him/her to make sure you are doing what is required for your class.

Website Citations

At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.

Web page

Lee, J. (1997). Kinship and family ties. Retrieved from

In-text citation  (Lee, 1997)

Web page with no author

Kinship and family ties. (1997). Retrieved from

In-text citation  ("Kinship and family ties," 1997)

Web page with no date

Lee, J. (n.d.). Kinship and family ties. Retrieved from

In-text citation  (Lee, n.d.)

Online Government Report

Ministry of Health. (2008). Let's get real: Real skills for people working in

    mental  health and addiction. Retrieved from

    nsf/pagesmh/ 8294/$File/letsgetreal-sep08.pdf

In-text citation (Ministry of Health, 2008)

Online Encyclopedia

Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford

     encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from


In-text citation (Marcoux, 2008)

Online Dictionary 

Ignition. (1989). In Oxford English online dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from

In-text citation ("Ignition," 1989)


A wiki (such as wikipedia) is a website that any one can contribute to, by writing, reviewing or editing an entry.

Stress testing. (2008). Retrieved October 15, 2008, from Wikipedia: http//en.

In-text citation ("Stress testing," 2008)