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APA Citation - South Bend-Elkhart: Articles: Online

General Information

Database Articles:  In general, when you cite an article from a database, the format is the same as for a print article. 

- At the end of the citation include the DOI number to indicate an online article. 

- If there is no DOI number assigned to the article, give the URL of the journal, magazine, or newspaper home page.

Alphabetize your reference list by the first word of the citation (usually the author's last name).

Double space all of the citations on your reference page.

Indent the second & following lines of the citation 5-7 spaces.  

For 2-6 authors: Smith, J., Clancy, L., & Kelly, S. 

For more than 6 authors: Provide only the first author followed by a comma and et al. For example: Miller, K., et al.

Only capitalize the first word of the document title. If there is a colon in the title, capitalize the first word after the colon.

Italicize the title of the magazine or journal.  Also italicize the volume number - but do not italicize the issue number.

Page Numbers: Use p. for articles one page long and pp. for articles that are more than one page.  If no page numbers are available, just leave blank.

Do not include a period after the DOI number or URL.

Dates: Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available.

No retrieval date is needed.

Electronic Information

If your source does not appear in the examples below consult the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

  • If pagination in electronic references is unavailable, leave out of the citation.

  • APA now requires a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) when available.  The DOI may be found in the citation, abstract, full record/details, or on the first page of the article/book.  Or you may look up the DOI at the following web site:  DOI Lookup (

  • If a DOI has not been assigned to a journal article and the article was accessed online, the URL of the journal home page should be listed. 

  • There is no longer a need to cite the database from which a journal article was accessed except if the material is discontinued and was accessed through an archival database such as JSTOR.

  • No retrieval date is needed for electronic sources unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis).

Full-Text Article with DOI assigned

Schneiderman, R. A. (1997). Librarians can make sense of the

        Net. San Antonio Business Journal, 11, 58-61.


Full-Text Article without a DOI

Bianco, A. & Zellner, W. (2003, October 6). Is Wal-Mart too

         powerful? Harvard Business Review, 38, 100-104.

         Retrieved from

Article in an Internet-only newsletter

Waufton, K.K. (1999, April). Dealing with anthrax. Telehealth

          News, 3(2).  Retrieved from

Internet technical or research reports

University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and

          Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A

          21st century challenge (Report No. here if available).

          Retrieved from the Robert Wood Foundation website:

  • In the example above, the author is the publisher (in other words, a ‘corporate author’ is listed).  Identify publisher in the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been identified as the author.  If the report is from the U.S. Government Printing Office, list the publisher location and name as Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Example DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

Format-from Database (Article includes a DOI number)

Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal. Vol.(Issue), Page(s). doi: number


Academic Search Premier



 Sundell, J. (2010, June). Climate change is the norm! Why focus on just one pop-problem at a time - energy, mould,

  sustainability or climate change? When is the time for real indoor air and health science?. Indoor Air, pp 185-186.


Example: No DOI

Last Name, First Intitial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Vol.(Issue), Page(s). Retrieved from URL of journal home page. 


Tefft, N. (2009). Light, libation, and the parsing of the health: Three essays in health economics. Dissertations

                   Abstracts International Section A, 69. Retrieved from PsycINFO database.

Opposing Viewpoints

Article in Opposing Viewpoints online; publication date is original date, but title has been changed for the book.

Bush, G. W. (2005, March 22). Diverting money into private accounts would strengthen Social Security. In A. C.

        Nakaya (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: America in the twenty-first century. Greenhaven Press.

CQ Researcher

Article from CQ Researcher database; journal with volume number and page numbers.

Cooper, M. H. (2004, September 24). Social Security reform. The CQResearcher, 14, 781-804.


Hyphenated author name; two authors; journal number and page numbers given; retrieved from ProQuest database.

Eshbaugh-Soha, M., & Peake, J. S. (2006, December). New strategies in presidential policy appeals: ―Going local‖

        to reform Social Security. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 689-705.


Newspaper article with no author named.

Hill’s Social Security ad insults intelligence. (2006, October 6). Indianapolis Star, p. A12.

Health and Wellness

Multiple authors for article in professional journal; article retrieved from Health and Wellness database.

Rosen, M. I., McMahon, T. J., Lin, H., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2006, February). Effects of Social Security payments

        on substance abuse in a homeless mentally ill cohort. Health Services Research, 41, 173.