Citation Guide - Central Indiana

Books

Color Coding Legend
Author(s) or Editor(s) Title of Book, Periodical or Album Title of Article, Section, Chapter or Song Volume & Issue Website Address
Place of Publication Publisher Date Pages Other Information

 

Source In-Text Citation Reference Page Citation

Book - One Author

 

Format:

(Author Last Name, Date, Page Number)

Example:

(Smith, 2004, p. 32)

Format:

Author last name, First initial, Middle initial. (Date). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Example:

Smith, K.C. (2004). Children's literature of the Harlem renaissanceBloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Chapter in a book

Format:

(Author Last Name, Date, Page Number)

Example:

(Smith, 2004, p. 32)

Format:

Author last name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Date).  Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp xxx-xxx).  Location: Publisher.

Example:

Arthur, K. (2004). High school reform in Arizona. In A. Squires (Ed.), Dismal state of American education (pp. 56-84).  New York:  Knopf.

E-book

[When doi (digital object identifier) is available, you should use it at end of entry as noted in examples]

Format:

(Author Last Name, Date, Page Number)

If no author but has editor:

Format:

(Editor Last Name, Date, Page Number)

Possible Formats:

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Title of book.  Doi:xxxxx

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date). Title of book. Retrieved from URL

Editor last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.).  (Date).  Title of book.  Retrieved from URL.

Possible Examples:

Volz, B.D. (2000). Junior genreflecting: A guide to good reads and series fiction for children.  Doi: 10.1036/0071393724

Zimring, C.A. (2005). Cash for your trash: Scrap recycling in America. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/cgcc.

Careful, T. (Ed.). (2003). Children and ritalin. Doi: 10.1037/10762-000

Articles from a Database and Print

Color Coding Legend
Author(s) or Editor(s) Title of Book, Periodical or Album Title of Article, Section, Chapter or Song Volume & Issue Website Address
Place of Publication Publisher Date Pages Other Information
Source In-Text Citation Reference Page Citations

Source from a Database

**Most library databases have the citation provided.

 

**When DOI (digital object identifier) is available, you should use it at end of entry as noted instead of where the article was retrieved from.

 

**If no DOI is available, include the homepage URL of the journal (or newspaper, magazine, etc.) or the database URL where you retrieved the information from.

Format:
(Author last name, Date, Page Number)

Example: 
(Bender, 2006, p. 39)

Formats:

Format is the same as print but add DOI or electronic retrieval information at end.  

With DOI: 

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month, Day). Title of article.  Title of Magazine, Volume number (issue number), Pages. doi:xxxxxx

Using Journal Homepage:

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month, Day). Title of article.  Title of Magazine, Volume number (issue number), Pages. Retrieved from journal homepage URL.

Using Database: 

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month, Day). Title of article.  Title of Magazine, Volume number (issue number), Pages. Retrieved from database URL.

Examples:

With DOI:

Kroon, L. (2007). Drug interactions with smoking. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64 (18), 1917-1921. doi: 10.2146/ajhp060414

Using Article Homepage: 

Vissing, Y.  (2003, December). The yellow school bus project:  Helping homeless students get ready for school.  Phi Delta Kappan, 85 (4), 321-323.  Retrieved from http://pdkintl.org/

Using Database Retrieval Information:

Vissing, Y.  (2003, December). The yellow school bus project:  Helping homeless students get ready for school.  Phi Delta Kappan, 85 (4), 321-323.  Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com

Magazine or Journal Article from Print

Format:
(Author last name, Date, Page Number)

Example: 
(Bender, 2006, p. 39)

Format:

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month, Day). Title of article.  Title of Magazine, Volume number, Pages.  


Note:  If no volume number is available, use p. or pp. before page numbers.


Example:

Bender, M. (2006, December). 2-minute winter warm-ups: Wake up your hibernating muscles, starting now.  Health, 20, 38-40.

Websites

Color Coding Legend
Author(s) or Editor(s) Title of Book, Periodical or Album Title of Article, Section, Chapter or Song Volume & Issue Website Address
Place of Publication Publisher Date Pages Other Information
Source In-Text Citation Reference Page Citations
Website with Author

Format:
(Author last name, Date, Page Number)

Example: 
(American Library Association YALSA , 2005, p. 32)

If the website does not have page numbers, provide 
the paragraph number. 

Format:
(Author last name, Date, Paragraph Number)

Example: 
(American Library Association YALSA, 2005, para. 4)

If the source does not have page numbers or 
paragraph numbers, but does have headings, list the 
heading under which the quotation appears and then 
the number of paragraph in which the quotation 
appears.

Format:
(Author last name, Date, Heading, Paragraph Number)

Example: 
(American Library Association YALSA, 2005, Method Selection, para. 4)

Format:

Author last name, First initial, Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Title.  Retrieved from URL

Example:

American Library Association YALSA. (2005). Outstanding books for the college bound. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/ yalsa/booklists/obcb

Website with No Author

Format:
(First two or three words of title, Date)

Example:
(The Trials and Tribulation2003)

Format:

Article title. (Date). Retrieved from URL

Example:

The trials and tribulation of the homeless on the streets of Phoenix.  (2003, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.save.the. homeless.org/trials.html

Website with No Date

Format:
(Author last name, n.d.)

Example: 
(Jameson, n.d.)

Format:

Author last name, First initial, Middle initial. (n.d.). Title.  Retrieved from URL

Example:

Jameson, E. (n.d.). NCH FACT sheets on homelessness.  Retrieved from http://nch.ari.net/facts.html

Newspaper Article from Website

Format:
(Author last name, Date, Page Number)

Example: 
(Bender, 2006, p. 39)

Format:

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Example:

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/psychiatry-handbook-linked-to-drug-industry/?_r=0

Indirect Source

Color Coding Legend
Author(s) or Editor(s) Title of Book, Periodical or Album Title of Article, Section, Chapter or Song Volume & Issue Website Address
Place of Publication Publisher Date Pages Other Information
Source In-Text Citation Reference Page Citation

Any Indirect Source
(A source cited in another source).

Whenever possible, find the original source and cite that.

If the original source is not available then cite the source indirectly.

Name the original source in your signal phrase and include the secondary source in the parentheses.


Format:
Original author last name stated “whatever you’re quoting” (as cited in author last name of the work you read, date, page number).

Example: 
Johnson stated “that...” (as cited in Smith, 2013, p. 102).

Include only the secondary source (the book, article etc that you read) on the reference page.

Format:

Author last name, First initial, Middle initial. (Date).  Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Example:

Smith, A.B. (2013). The book of diabetes. New York:  Knopf.

Personal Communication

Color Coding Legend
Author(s) or Editor(s) Title of Book, Periodical or Album Title of Article, Section, Chapter or Song Volume & Issue Website Address
Place of Publication Publisher Date Pages Other Information
Source In-Text Citation Reference Page Citation

Personal Communication

(This includes interviews, letters, and emails).

Format:
(Communicator’s name, personal communication, date of communication).

Example:
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2011).

 

Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

 

Additional Author Information

Color Coding Legend
Author(s) or Editor(s) Title of Book, Periodical or Album Title of Article, Section, Chapter or Song Volume & Issue Website Address
Place of Publication Publisher Date Pages Other Information
Source In-Text Citation Reference Page Citation
Two or More Authors

A work by two authors: 

Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.

Research by Branson and Larson (2003) supports...

(Branson & Larson, 2003)

A work by three to five authors:

List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.

(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Kernis et al., 1993)

A work by six or more authors: 

Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Harris et al. (2001) argued...

(Harris et al., 2001)

Format for two authors:

Author last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Author last name, First initial, Middle initial.  (Date).  Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Example for two authors:

Branson, J. J., & Larson, B. (2003).  Educating Rita.  New York: Norton.  

Format for three to seven authors:

Authors’ names in the order in which they appear. (Date). Title of article. Title of Magazine. Volume number (issue number), Pages.

Example for three to seven authors:

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

Format for eight or more authors:

List six author’s last names and initials,…final author last name and initials. (Date). Title of article. Title of Magazine. Volume number (issue number), Pages.

Example for eight or more authors:

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.

Editor only No Author Format:
(Editor last name, Date, Page Number)
Example: 
(Atkinson, 2014, p.36)

Format:

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Date). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Example:

Atkinson, S. (Ed.). (2014). The business book: big ideas simply explained. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited

Organization as Author

Almost all government websites offer no author.  The government agency is the organization author.

Format:
(Organization, Date, Page Number)

Example: 
1st citation:
(National Fire Protection Association [NFPA], 2009, p. 76)


Subsequent citations: 
(NFPA, 2009)

Format:

Organization. (Date).  Title of book. Location: Publisher.

Example:

National Fire Protection Association. (2009). Fundamentals of firefighting skills. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett

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