Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA : Books

Bibliographic Citations


Things to Remember!

  • The author's first initial is used, rather than the full first name. 
  • List the state's two letter abbreviation for cities within the United States.
  • Publisher names are written in full
  • For books with two to seven authors, include all names.
  • For books with eight or more authors, only name the first six followed by three ellipses, and end with final author. 


Citing a book with One Author

Last name, F.M. (Year). Book title. Publication City, State or Country: Publisher.

Rowling, J. K. (1999) Harry potter and the prisoner of azkaban. New York, NY: Scholastic. 


Citing a book with Two or More Authors

First Author's Last name, F.M., Next Author's Last name. F.M. & Final Author's Last name, F.M. (Year) Book title. Publication City, State, or Country: Publisher.

Levitt, S D., & Dubner, S. J.(2005). Freakonomics: A rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York, NY: Morrow.


Thing to Remember for Works by the Same Author!

  • List the books in chronological order (earliest fist)
  • If the books are from the same year, add a lowercase letter (2005a, 2005b) to distinguish them from each other.


Lewis, C. S. (1938). Out of the silent planet. London: The Bodley Head.

Lewis, C. S. (1956). Till we have faces: A myth retold. Oxford: Bles.

In-Text Citations for Works by One Author

  • Signal phrases use past tense.
  • A "p." precedes the page number.
  • In the end citation, commas separate the elements. 
  • A period goes after the final parenthesis.

Signal phrase: Last name, (Year) stated... (p. Page#). 

Rowling, (1999) stated... (p. 394). 

End Citation: (Last name, Year, p. Page#).

(Rowling, 1999, p. 394).

In-Text Citations for Works by Two or More Authors

For Two Authors:

  • Always mention both authors.
  • Use and in a signal phrase, but use an ampersand (&) in parenthesis.

For Three or More Authors: 

  • In first reference of three to five, name all contributors.
  • In the following references, name the first author followed by et al.
  • Use and in a signal phrase, but use an ampersand (&) in parenthesis.
  • For six or more contributors, name only the first author, followed by et al.

Two Authors

Signal phrase: First author's Last name and Second author's last name (Year) said... (p. Page#). 

Levitt and Dubner (2005) said... (p. 23).

End citation: ( First author's Last name & Second author's last name, Year, p. Page#).

(Levitt & Dubner, 2005, p. 23).

In-Text Citations for Works by the Same Author

  • Signal Phrases and end citations can be used interchangeably; just apply the appropriate rule. 
  • Titles are NOT needed. (If you need to reference them, shorten the title and put it in italics or "quotation marks).

Soucre 1: Last name, (Year) said... (p. Page#).

Lewis (1938) said... (p. 12).

Source 2: (Last name, Year, p. Page#).

(Lewis, 1956, p. 27).

Quick Overview