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MLA 9th Edition Overview

Video In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations

An indication inside the text of your assignment as to which of the sources listed in the bibliography was used in a particular passage. It may also be called a parenthetical reference because the citation may include a brief reference to the first part of the bibliography entry in parentheses at the end of the sentence or passage. Both MLA and APA format prescribe the contents and formatting of the in-text citation.

Cite Right in MLA 9th Edition

In-Text Citations: Overview

In-Text Citations



MLA Reference Format


In-Text Example

Book with one author


Last Name, First Name.  Title of Book. Publisher, Year.


Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster, 2012.

(Goodwin 17)


Section of an edited book


Last name, First name. "Title of Entry." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.


Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.

(Harris 26-28)

Book with two authors


Author, First, Second First Last. Title. Publisher, Year.


Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

(Gillespie and Lerner 39)

Books with three or more authors


Author, First, et al. Title. Publisher, Year.


Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.


(Wysocki, et al. 98)

Electronic Book


Author’s last name, First name. Title of the e-book. Publisher, Year of publication, Title of the web site or database, URL


Austen, Jane and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books,

(Austen and Grahame-Smith ch. 7)

Online Reference  Entry with an Author


Last name, First Name. “Title of Entry”. Title of Reference Book, edited by First name Last name, Publisher, Year. Name of website, URL


Myers, Katherine Ann. “Juana Ines de la Cruz”. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford Reference,


Article from Database with DOI


Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. X, no. X, Year, page numbers. Name of Database, doi: xx. Xxxxxxxx. Accessed Day Month Year.


Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. 

(Langhamer 177-80)

Article from Database No DOI


Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title, vol.X, no.X, Year, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.


Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, 


Website Entry with author


Last Name, First. Title of Webpage. Website Publisher, Last date updated, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.


Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, 


Website Entry

No Author


Title of webpage. Title of Website, Last date updated, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, 

(“The Purdue OWL Family of Sites”)

Government Report


Country, Government Agency. Title of Report. Publisher, Year.


United States, Government Accountability Office. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs. Government Printing Office, 2006.

(“Climate Change”)

Newspaper article - online


Last Name, First. “Article Title.” Newspaper, Day Month Year, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.


Bernstein, Mark. “10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.” New York Times, 16 Aug. 2002, 


YouTube Video with author


Last Name, First. “Title of Video.” YouTube, uploaded by Screen name, day Month Year, URL.


McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,


Note: If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title


YouTube Video – no author


“Title of Video.” YouTube, uploaded by Screen Name, day Month Year, URL.


“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016,

(“8 Hot Dog Gadgets”)

Online Image with creator


Creator Last Name, First Name. “Title of Image.” Title of Website, Version (if available, Number (if available), Publisher, Publication Date, URL.


Gilpin, Laura. “Terraced Houses, Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.” Library of Congress, Reproduction no. LC-USZ62-102170, 1939,



Online Image No creator, no title, no date.


Description of image. Title of website. Publisher, URL.


Photograph of Coach K with Team USA. NBC Olympics, USA Today Sports,

(“Photograph of Coach K with Team USA”)



Interviewee. “Subject Line of Email.” Received by Name, Day Month Year of email. Email Interview.


Smith, Paula. "Re: Food and Family." Received by Joseph Tan, 20 May 2016. Email Interview.


Television Episode


“Episode Name.” Series Name, written by First Name Last Name, directed by First Name Last Name, Distributor, Year.

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, Warner Brothers, 2004.

(“The One Where Chandler Can’t Cry”)



Title. Directed by First Name Last Name, performances by First Name Last Name (if relevant), Distributor, Year.


Speed Racer. Directed by Lana Wachowski and Lilly Wachowski, performances by Emile Hirsch, Nicholas Elia, Susan Sarandon, Ariel Winter, and John Goodman, Warner Brothers, 2008.

(“Speed Racer”)



“Title of Episode.” Title of Podcast from Name of Website, Day Month Year, URL.


“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,

(“Best of Not My Job Musicians”)