This survey is done continuously by the Census Bureau. It provides information about the characteristics of a place and its population. It is the basis of many commercial products, including some found on this page.
The ACS is mostly estimated data, whereas the Decennial Census is mostly not estimated.
Access the ACS through the main website data.census.gov and type the place name into the search bar to see initial information about the place in the Profile and a list of all tables that might be of interest. You will need to customize these tables to get data for the specific place.
Or, type a topic into the search bar and then click on one of the tables that appears in the results list.
Once in a table, click Customize Table and when the new screen opens use the Geographies button to focus on a place, down to a single census block.
Note: as in all Census products, if the geography is so small that showing data would compromise privacy, you will see N or nothing. Simply broaden your place: try the state instead of a county, for example.