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English 111

Welcome to English 111















Welcome to the English 111 Library Guide! Your assignments will require you to support your writing with outside sources in a variety of formats, including books, articles, websites, visual aids, and also primary sources. You will also need to give appropriate credit to sources used in your writing by following correct citation style in either MLA or APA format.








Citing Sources

Why Cite Sources?

While writing your paper you might ask, why should I cite my sources?  Who is going to know anyway? 

Well, for one, you will know, and whether you want to believe it or not, your professor will know.  Citing your sources give credit to the creator of the source materials.  So, If you use any part of a source, whether it is a direct quote, paraphrasing, or just using statistics or ideas from that source, you must cite the original source. 

When you conduct research for a paper, you will consult sources of information (books, journals, etc.) relevant to your topic. In your paper, you will use some of the words and/or ideas and maybe graphics from these sources. You must tell those reading your paper from which sources the words/ideas/graphics came. This is documentation.

If you do not document your sources, you are leading the reader to believe the ideas/words/graphics are your own when they are not. This is plagiarism.

There are many different styles for citing your sources.  In this LibGuide we will cover MLA (Modern Language Association) style, and APA (American Psychological Association) style.  It is important to know which style your professor wants you to use for your paper.  Refer to your course syllabus to find out or ask your professor.


 Documentation Style

 Two of the most common in academic communities are MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American                 PsychologicalAssociation). In addition to spelling out how to format your paper, both of these styles require two things:



  • Parenthetical (MLA) or in-text (APA) citations
  • Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) page


Parenthetical or in-text citations:
Parenthetical or in-text citations are a way of telling the reader, “This bit of information came from this particular source on my works cited or references page.”  For example:

  • MLA    

According to Sánchez-Jankowski, “youth gangs have been depicted as the trade schools for organized crime” (131).

  • APA    

According to Sánchez-Jankowski (1991), “youth gangs have been depicted as the trade schools for organized crime” (p. 131).


Works Cited or References Page:
The Works Cited or References page is a list (in alphabetical order) of all sources that the writer used.  It appears at the end of the paper.  Examples:


Works Cited

Sánchez-Jankowski, Martin. Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkley: California UP, 1991. 



Sánchez-Jankowski, M. (1991). Islands in the street: Gangs and American urban society. Berkley: University of California Press.

 One way to avoid plagiarism is to give credit to the original authors whose IDEAS you use in your writing. There are several documentation and citation styles  you can use. Check with your teacher to make sure you are using the correct documentation style.

   Resources for source citation

  • NoodleTools logo


     Credo Instruct - Information literacy tutorial

     Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)