Citation Guide - Valparaiso

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If there is a resource citation you are unable to find here, check Purdue OWL.

Joshua Vossler is passionate about citing sources, and his videos are very easy to follow.  If you are still trying to wrap your head around citations, watch some of his videos.  Scroll down to get the complete list.

Find answers to common citation questions or submit your own at: 

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APA Citation Examples

Common Questions: 

What if my source doesn’t list a date?

Use (n.d.) for no date if a date isn’t included in the source.

Are the hyperlinks active in the references?

No, any URLs in your references should not be active. Right click on the active URL and select remove hyperlink.

I don’t see the material I’m looking for in this list!

Don’t panic, there is help in the library. Please email, call, or come in for one-on-one help with your citations. You can find more examples on the Purdue OWL or the APA Style Blog.



APA Reference Format, 6th ed.

Reference Example

In-Text Citation Example

Book with one author

Author, A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case.Location: Publisher.

Shotton, M.A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

(Shotton, 1989, p. 14)

Section of an edited book

Author, A. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Location: Publisher.

Haybron, D.M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

(Haybron, 2008, pp. 19-21)

Book with more than one author

Author, A., Author, B. & Author, C. (Year). Title in sentence case. Location: Publisher.

Davis, E., & Smith, C. (2015). Lost in the stacks. Chicago, IL: Birdhouse Press.

(Davis & Smith, 2015, Chapter 2)

Electronic Book

Author, A. (Year). Title in sentence case. Retrieved from Name of Database.

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values [PDF]. Retrieved from

(O’Keefe, n.d.)

Online Encyclopedia Entry

Author of entry, A. (Year). Title of entry in sentence case.  In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia in sentence case (edition or page numbers). DOI or Retrieved from URL.

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from

(Graham, 2005)

Online Encyclopedia  Entry - No Author

Title of entry in sentence case. (Year). In Title of encyclopedia in sentence case (edition or page numbers). Location: Publisher. DOI or Retrieved from URL.

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from

(Heuristic, n.d.)

Article from Database with DOI

Author, A. & Author, B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal, Vol, page numbers. doi: xx. xxxxxxxx

Herbst-Damm, K.L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 255-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

(Herbst-Damm & Kulik, 2005)

Article from Database No DOI

Author, A.A. & Author, B.B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal, Vol(Issue), page numbers. Retrieved from URL of journal homepage.

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 22(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

(Sillick & Schutte, 2006, p. 40)

Website Entry with author

Author, A. (Year, Month). Title of entry in sentence case. Title of Website. Retrieved from URL

Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The negative effects of Facebook on communication. Social Media Today. Retrieved from

(Cain, 2012)

Website Entry

No Author

Title of entry in sentence case. (Year, Month).  Title of Website. Retrieved from URL

Indiana attractions and oddities. (2019, January 15). Roadside America. Retrieved from

(Indiana attractions and oddities, 2019)

Government Report

Government Agency from largest to smallest. (Year). Title of document in sentence case (Report no. XXX). Retrieved from URL

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650).  Retrieved from

(National Institutes of Health [NIH], 2003)

Newspaper article - online

Author, A. (Year, Month, Day). Article title in sentence case. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from URL of home page

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 1). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from

(Brody, 2007)

YouTube Video with author

Author, A. [Screen name]. (Year, Month, Day). Title of video in sentence case. [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). The haunting tape 14 (ghost caught on video) [Video file]. Retrieved from

Note: Here, the "author" is the person who uploaded the video file. The screen name should be spelled and capitalized exactly as it appears, even if it does not observe standard spelling and capitalization rules.

(Apsolon, 2011)

YouTube Video – no author

Screen name. (Year, Month, Day). Title of video in sentence case. [Format]. Retrieved from URL

shapirolibrary. (2017, July 24). IBISWorld - industry reports & information [Video file]. Retrieved from

(shapirolibrary, 2017)

Online Image with creator

Artist last name, A. (Year). Title of artwork in sentence case. [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Baumel, A.  (2010). Cholera treatment center in Haiti [Online image]. Retrieved from

(Baumel, 2010)

Online Image No creator, no title, no date.

[Subject and type of work]. (n.d.). Retrieved from URL

[Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sleepinganimals/

(Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog, n.d.)

Personal Communication

Not included in reference list.

Not included in reference list since it is not a published source others would have access to.

First name Last name (personal communication, Exact date).

Television Episode

Creator, A. (Writer), & Creator, B. (Director). (Year). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In A. Creator (Executive producer), Title of Television Series. Location: Production Company.

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

(Egan & Alexander, 2005)


Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, A. (Director). (Year). Title of movie in sentence case [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio name.

Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.

(Smith & Smithee, 2001)