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Citation Guide - Valparaiso

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Joshua Vossler is passionate about citing sources, and his videos are very easy to follow.  If you are still trying to wrap your head around citations, watch some of his videos.  Scroll down to get the complete list.

Find answers to common citation questions or submit your own at: 

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APA 7th Citation Examples

An academic journal is a publication who's audience is other experts in the same field. Use this example anytime you are referrencing an academic or scholarly article, usually found in a library database or open source journal. 

Use the library A-Z list to find reliable academic journal articles. 

Material Format Reference Example In-text Example
Academic/Scholarly Journal Article Last name, First initial, & Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Tite of Journal, Volume(issue number), page numbers. DOI. Gou, J.W. & Jee, S. H. (2021). Strategies to develop a suitable formulation for inflammatory skin disease treatment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(11), 6078-6079. http://doi-org.allstate.libproxy,ivytech.edu/10.3390/ijms22116078

(Gou & Jee, 2021)

 

In-text citation note: For a work with three or more authors, list the first author and “et al.” for all citations, including the first citation: (Johnson et al, 2010).

Use this format to reference any ATI books. Up to 20 authors can be listed according to APA 7th ed. Guidelines. 

Author last name, first inital. (Year). Title in sentence case (edition). Publisher. 

Reference Example
Holman, H.C., Williams, D., Sommer, S., Johnson, J., Ball, B.S., & McMichael, M.G. (2019). RN mental health nursing: review module (11.0 ed.). Assessment Technologies Institute.
In-text Example (Holman et al., 2019, p.68)

Note: For a work with three or more authors, list the first author and “et al.” for all citations, including the first citation.

If you have a couple references where your in-text citations would look exactly the same you add a lowercase letter after the year to tell them apart. Here are the rules from the APA Style Blog: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/same-year-author

 

  • Reference Example: 

    Holman, H. C., Williams, D., Johnson, J., Sommer, S., Ball, B. S., Morris, C., Leehy, P., &  Hertel, R. (2020a). Adult medical surgical nursing. (11.0 ed.). Assessment Technologies Institute.

    Holman, H. C., Williams, D., Johnson, J., Sommer, S., Ball, B. S., Morris, C., Leehy, P., & Hertel, R. (2020b). PN maternal newborn nursing. (11.0 ed.). Assessment Technologies Institute.

  • In-text Example: (Holman et al, 2020a, p. 121-122)

 

If you use AI Tools, like ChatGPT, in your paper or presentation, describe how you used the tool. For example, which tool did you use, which version, what did you ask the tool to do. In your text, provide the prompt you gave the AI tool and and then the generated response. 

Unfortunately, the results you get will not be retreivable by others. This type of material is usually cited as personal communication, however there is no other person communicating so quoting from ChatGPT's text session is more like sharing an algorithm's output. In this case, you credit the author of the algorithm with a reference list entry and an in-text citation. 

Material

Format Reference Example In-text Example

AI Tools

ChatGPT, Claude, Gemini, etc.

Author. (Date). Title (Version number) [Large language model]. Source. OpenAI. (2024). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large langauge model].  https://chat.openai.com/chat (OpenAI, 2024)

 

Use this example anytime you are referencing a book, electronic or hard copy: 

Material Format  Reference Example In-text Example
Book with one author Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of book in sentence case. Publisher. Morris-Jones, R. (2014). Abc of determatology. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated. (Morris-Jones, 2014, p. 55)
Books with multiple authors Author, A., Author, B. & Author, C. (Year). Title in sentence case. Publisher. Louis, G., Davis, E., & Smith, C. (2015). Lost in the stacks. Birdhouse Press. (Louis et al, 2015, p.67)

Use this example anytime you are referencing a chapter or section of an edited book, electronic or hard copy: 

Material Format Reference Example In-text Example
Book Chapter Last name, First initial. (Year). Title of chaper in sentence case. In First initial, Last name (Editor), Title of book in sentence case (edition, pp. xx-xx). Publisher.  Haybron, D.M. (2018). Treatment of asthma in children. In K. Jones (Editor), Asthma: causes and treatements (3rd ed., pp.25-45). Taylor & Francis.  (Haybron, 2018, p. 34)

 

Use this citation example if you use a Drug Handbook either an online e-book version or paper version. You will need to determine if your reference has authors or editors and use one of the examples below. This is the same format you would use for any section of an edited reference book: handbooks, dictionaries, encyclopedias.


Section of Edited Book:

Title of section or drug. (Year).  In First initial. Last name of book editor. Title of handbook in sentence case.(edition if available, pp. xx-xx). Publisher. 

Note: If you have more than one editor, used (Eds.) and separate their names with commas, adding an ampersand (&) before the final name.  

Reference Example Diazepam. (2021).  In K.C. Comerford. (Ed.). Nursing 2021 drug handbook.(41st ed., pp.331-333). Wolters Kluwer.
In-Text Citation (Diazepam, 2021, p.332)

Section of Authored Book:

Author last name, first inital. (Year). Section name. In Title in sentence case (Edition, page numbers). Publisher. 

First initial. Last name of author.(Year). Title of section. In Title of handbook in sentence case.(edition if available, pp. xx-xx). Publisher. 

Note: If you have more than one author separate their names with commas, adding an ampersand (&) before the final name.  

Reference Example Kizior, R. J., & Hodgson, K. (2021).  Diazepam. In Saunders nursing drug handbook.(pp.331-333). Elsevier - Health Sciences Division.
In-Text Citation
(Kizior & Hodgson, 2021, p.332)

 

Refer to the APA Style website for more information on citing the DSM.

Individual chapters: 

American Psychiatric Association. (2022).  Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th-TR ed.). https://doi-org.allstate.libproxy.ivytech.edu/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425787

In-text example: 

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th-TR ed;,DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2022) is the most widely accepted nomenclature used by clinicians and researchers for the classification of mental disorders.

The first time you cite the Manual, give its full title as above. After, you can use the abbreviation DSM–5. 

You can use the abbreviation APA for the author, as long as you introduce the APA's full name at first reference: 

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th-TR ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2022) is the most widely accepted nomenclature used by clinicians and researchers for the classification of mental disorders. . . . The changes involving the removal of the legal problems criterion and the addition of a craving criterion were retained in the final revision of the diagnostic criteria (APA, 2022).

Use this citation if your material is a report or a entry from a government website. 

Material Format Reference Example In-Text Example
Government Report Government Agency. (Year). Tite of document in sentence case (Report number if known). Government department listed largest to smallest. URL.  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: a guide for schools (NIH Publicaton No. 02-2650). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Instituties of Health. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2003)

 

If the image is from a book/book chapter or journal article, and was created by the authors of that source, just cite the book/chapter or article. If you are using the image in your work cite it as you would a direct quote, and include a page number.

Note: Although for most images you must look at the license on a case-by-case basis, images and clip art from programs such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint can be used without attribution. By purchasing the program, you have purchased a license to use the clip art and images that come with the program without attribution.

For clipart or stock images found online:

  • If the license associated with clip art or a stock image states “no attribution required,” then do not provide an APA Style reference, in-text citation, or copyright attribution. To use the image as a figure in an APA Style paper, provide a figure number and title and then the image. If desired, describe the image in a figure note.
  • If the license associated with clip art or a stock image says that attribution is required, then provide a copyright attribution in the figure note and a reference list entry for the image in the reference list. 

    To use the image as a figure in an APA Style paper, provide a figure number and title and then the image. Below the image, provide a copyright attribution in the figure note. In a presentation, the figure number and title are optional but the note containing the copyright attribution is required. The copyright attribution is used instead of an in-text citation. The copyright attribution consists of the same elements as the reference list entry, but in a different order (title, author, date, site name, URL).

Material Format Reference Example In-text Example
Online image with artist/creator listed Artist last name, A. (Year). Title of artwork in sentence case. [Format]. Website. URL Baumel, A.  (2010). Cholera treatment center in Haiti [Online image]. Doctors Without Borders. https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/what-we-do/news-stories/story/haiti-cholera-treatment-and-prevention-training (Baumel, 2010)
Online Image No creator, no title, no date. [Subject and type of work]. (n.d.). URL [Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog]. (n.d.). http://www.sleepinganimals/pix.com (Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog, n.d.)
Artwork in a museum or museum website Artist last name, First initial. (Year of work). Title of work. [Format]. Name and location of museum. URL.  van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States.  https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/vincent-van-gogh-the-starry-night-1889/ (van Gogh, 1889)
PowerPoint slides Authors last name. First initial. (Year). Title of presentation. [PowerPoint slides]. Learning management system. URL of login page.  Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. IvyLearn. https://ivylearn.ivytech.edu/ (Mack & Sparke, 2018)

 

Material Format Reference Example In-text Example
 Online Newspaper Author last name, first initial. (Year, Month, Day). Article title. Newspaper title. URL Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html (Carey, 2019)
Print Newspaper Author last name, first initial. (Year, Month, Day). Article title. Newspaper title, page number.  Harlan, C. (2013, April 2). North Korea vows to restart shuttered nuclear reactor that can make bomb-grade plutonium. The Washington Post, A1-A4. (Harlan, 2013)

 

Use this reference example if your material is a handbook, dictionary, or other type of reference work, in print or electronic, from library databases.

Material Format Reference Example In-text Example
Entry in Reference Book. No author Title of entry in sentence case. (Year). In First Initial. Last name. (Editor), Title of work in sentence case (edition or page numbers). Publisher.  Crohn disease (regional enteritis, granulomatous colitis). (2021).  In C. Tamparo (Editor), Diseases of the human body (pp.372-373). F. A. Davis Company. (Tamparo, 2021, p. 372-373)
Online Reference Entry With author  Author of entry, A. (Year). Title of entry in sentence case.  In Inital. Last Name (Editor), Title of encyclopedia in sentence case (edition or page numbers). Publisher.  Graham, G. (2007). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Editor), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy: Vol. 1 (Fall 2007 ed., pp. 86-88). Stanford University. (Graham, 2007)

 

Below are a few common examples. Find more examples on  the APA Style Blog. 

Material Format  Reference Example In-text Example
Facebook post Name associated with the account. (Date of Post). FIrst 20 words of post a title. [Outside content type]. [Post type]. Facebook. URL. News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater (News From Science, 2019)

Instagram photo

 

Name of individual or group [@handle]. (Date of post). First 20 words of post as title. [Photo]. Instagram. URL. Philadelphia Museum of Art [@philamuseum]. (2019, December 3). “It’s always wonderful to walk in and see my work in a collection where it’s loved, and where people are [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B5oDnnNhOt4/ (Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2019)
X (formerly Twitter) Name of individual or group [@handle]. (Date of post). First twenty words of tweet. [Outside content].[Tweet]. Twitter. URL Prevention Institute [@preventioninst]. (2020, September 24). If you want to talk #health, you have to talk #racialjustice [Video attached] [Post]. X. https://twitter.com/preventioninst/status/1309211009039687680 (Prevention Institute, 2020)

 

Notes for citing videos: 

  • If you have more than one director use (Directors) instead and separate their names with commas, adding an ampersand (&) before the final name.  If the director is unknown, credit someone in a similar role (producer/writer) and put their job title in round brackets after their name. You can often find all the information you need on the Internet Movie Database website. 

  • For in-text citations, because videos do not have page numbers, provide a time stamp for the beginning of the scene you are citing. 

 

Material

Format Reference Example In-text Example
Streaming movies/video from subscription: Hulu, Netflix, etc. Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year). Title of Movie [Film]. Production Company.  Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Film]. Imagine Entertainment.  (Howard, 2001, 1:23:07)
Streaming video from website: YouTube, Vimeo, etc.

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given of person who posted the video. [User name that posted the video]. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of website. URL. 

Note: According to the APA, for citing purposes, the person who posted/uploaded the video is credited as author.  If only a user name is given, that would be the author. 

Movieclips Classic Trailers. (2021, December 9). The fisher king (1991) Trailer #1 [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/E65wgbFGGeM (Movieclips Classic Trailers, 2021, 1:25)
Television Episode Creator, A. (Writer), & Creator, B. (Director). (Year). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In A. Creator (Executive producer), Title of Television Series. Location: Production Company. Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting. (Egan & Alexander, 2005)

 

Use this example anytime you are referrencing an article from a website. If your article doesn't have an author, you may want to look for another resource. 

Material Format Reference Example In-text Example
Website article with author Last name, First initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Website. URL.  Halista, C. (2020, February 11). Common dermatologic conditions in ambulatory care. African American Policy Forum. https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/events/nc/handouts/nc17-derm2.pdf (Halista, 2020)

Use this example if your website does not have an identifible author. 

Material Format Reference Example In-text Example
Website article with no author Title of web article. (Year, Month Day). Title of Website. URL Dermatology - Overview. (2021, September 21). Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. https://www.mayoclinic.org/departments-centers/dermatology/sections/overview/ovc-20420526 (Dermatology - Overview, 2021)