Citation Guide - Valparaiso

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If there is a resource citation you are unable to find here, check Purdue OWL.

Joshua Vossler is passionate about citing sources, and his videos are very easy to follow.  If you are still trying to wrap your head around citations, watch some of his videos.  Scroll down to get the complete list.

Find answers to common citation questions or submit your own at: 

APA Style Blog

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APA Citation Examples, 7th ed.

Common Questions: 

What if my source doesn’t list a date?

Use (n.d.) for no date if a date isn’t included in the source.

Are the hyperlinks active in the references?

Yes, present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with “http:” or “https:”). New to 7th ed: It is not necessary to include the words "Retrieved from" or "Accessed from" before the DOI or URL

It is acceptable to use either the default display settings for hyperlinks in your word-processing program (e.g., usually blue font, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined. Leave links live if the work is to be published or read online.

New: You may use shot DOIs or short URLs if desired. Use http://shortdoi.org to shorten long DOIs use any URL shortening service as long as the link takes you to the correct location. 

I don’t see the material I’m looking for in this list!

Don’t panic, there is help in the library. Please email, call, or come in for one-on-one help with your citations. You can find more examples on the Purdue OWL or the APA Style Blog.

 

Material

APA, 7th ed. Reference Format

Example

 

In-Text Example

Book with one author

Author, A. (Year). Title of book in sentence case. Publisher.

Shotton, M.A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. Taylor & Francis.

 

(Shotton, 1989, p. 14)

Section of an edited book

Author, A. (Year). Title of chapter in sentence case. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

Haybron, D.M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (2nd ed., pp.17-43). Guilford Press.

 

(Haybron, 2008, pp. 19-21)

Book with more than one author

Author, A., Author, B. & Author, C. (Year). Title in sentence case. Publisher.

Davis, E., & Smith, C. (2015). Lost in the stacks. Birdhouse Press.

 

(Davis & Smith, 2015, Chapter 2)

Electronic Book

  • Same as print version

Author, A. (Year). Title in sentence case. Publisher.

Williams, W. E. (2008). Liberty versus the tyranny of Socialism: Controversial essays. Hoover Inst. Press Publication.

 

(Williams, 2008)

Online Encyclopedia Entry

Author of entry, A. (Year). Title of entry in sentence case.  In Inital. Last Name (Editor), Title of encyclopedia in sentence case (edition or page numbers). Publisher. DOI if available

Graham, G. (2007). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Editor), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy: Vol. 1 (Fall 2007 ed., pp. 86-88). Stanford University.

 

(Graham, 2007)

Online Encyclopedia  Entry - No Author

Title of entry in sentence case. (Year). In Title of encyclopedia in sentence case (edition or page numbers). Publisher. DOI if available.

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed., pp. 230). Merriam-Webster, Inc.

 

(Heuristic, n.d.)

 Journal Article from Database with DOI

Author, A. & Author, B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal, Vol(Issue), page numbers. https://doi.org/DOI NUMBER

Herbst-Damm, K.L., & Kulik, J.A.. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 255-229. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

 

(Herbst-Damm & Kulik, 2005)

Journal Article from Database No DOI

-Same as print version

Author, A.A. & Author, B.B. (Year). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Journal, Vol(Issue), page numbers.

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 22(2), 38-48.

 

(Sillick & Schutte, 2006, p. 40)

Website Entry with author

Author, A. (Year, Month). Title of entry in sentence case. Title of Website. URL

Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The negative effects of Facebook on communication. Social Media Today. http://socialmediatoday.com

 

(Cain, 2012)

Website Entry

No Author

Title of entry in sentence case. (Year, Month).  Title of Website. URL

Indiana attractions and oddities. (2019, January 15). Roadside America. https://www.roadsideamerica.com/location/in/all

 

(Indiana attractions and oddities, 2019)

Government Report

Government Agency. (Year). Title of document in sentence case (Report no. XXX). Government Department largest to smallest. URL

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650).U.S. Department of Health and Human, National Institutes of Health. Services. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf

 

(National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2003)

Newspaper article - online

Author, A. (Year, Month, Day). Article title in sentence case. Newspaper Title. URL

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 1). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11iht-11brod.8685746.html

 

(Brody, 2007)

YouTube Video with author

Author, A. [Screen name]. (Year, Month, Day). Title of video in sentence case. [Format]. URL

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). The haunting tape 14 (ghost caught on video) [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848

 

 

Note: Here, the "author" is the person who uploaded the video file. The screen name should be spelled and capitalized exactly as it appears, even if it does not observe standard spelling and capitalization rules.

 

(Apsolon, 2011)

YouTube Video – no author

Screen name. (Year, Month, Day). Title of video in sentence case. [Format]. Retrieved from URL

shapirolibrary. (2017, July 24). IBISWorld - industry reports & information [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ot98iAtFzfo

 

(shapirolibrary, 2017)

Online Image with creator

Artist last name, A. (Year). Title of artwork in sentence case. [Format]. Website. URL

Baumel, A.  (2010). Cholera treatment center in Haiti [Online image]. Doctors Without Borders. https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/what-we-do/news-stories/story/haiti-cholera-treatment-and-prevention-training

 

(Baumel, 2010)

Online Image No creator, no title, no date.

[Subject and type of work]. (n.d.). URL

[Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog]. (n.d.). http://www.sleepinganimals/pix.com

 

(Untitled illustration of a sleeping dog, n.d.)

Personal Communication

Not included in reference list.

Not included in reference list since it is not a published source others would have access to.

 

First name Last name (personal communication, Exact date).

Television Episode

Creator, A. (Writer), & Creator, B. (Director). (Year). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In A. Creator (Executive producer), Title of Television Series. Location: Production Company.

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

 

(Egan & Alexander, 2005)