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Learning Resource Center - Terre Haute

APA 7th Edition Starting Points

Subject Guide

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Darla Crist
Director of Library Services & Learning Resource Center
Ivy Tech Community College
Terre Haute Campus
(812) 298-2563

APA Reference List Tip - DOIs

Periodicals--sources that are published regularly, like magazines, journals, or newspapers--often offer what is known as a DOI or "Direct Object Identifier" that establishes a stable reference point for the source material, particularly in the area of electronic or virtual sources.

Citing a Source with a DOI Provided

If a DOI is provided by the publisher, it should be used in the APA Reference List citation.  Here is an example of a source with a DOI provided:

Jones, G., & Smith, S. (2022). How to use APA. APA Style Magazine 6(1), 11–16.

Citing a Source with No DOI Provided

If a publisher does not provide a DOI for an electronic source, APA recommends including a stable URL--or link--that allows readers to locate the source material online.  Here is an example of a journal article without a DOI but with a stable URL:

Harris, J. (2021). Advice from the APA front lines: Researching and writing

     like a professional. Journal of APA Style, 57(1), 76-83.                                                                                                       


A Glossary of Research Related Terms

  • Annotated Bibliography: an alphabetized working list of potential sources containing 1) a full APA style citation for the source 2) an analysis and summary of the source material regarding its credibility, important points made by the authors or sponsors of the source, and its relevance to a particular student research project.

  • Citations: information regarding source material used in a research essay; in-text citations are located in the essay itself, while APA References list citations (also known as ‘entries’) are located at the end of the research paper.

  • Cross-referencing: the method in which a researcher connects in-text citations with source information located on References page (s).

  • Databases: online aggregates of research and information, often located within a college library virtual platform.

  • DOI or Director Object Identifier: a unique identification number assigned to source material, such as journal articles, which can be substituted for an URL or permalink in a References list entry.

  • Entry or Entries: a term used to describe each full citation listed on the References page (s).

  • Full-Text: indicates a source is provided in its entirety, typically exactly as it was originally published.

  • In-text citations: an abbreviated form of citation included in the body of an essay; the in-text citation matches the first word of the full APA References page entry and allows readers to cross-reference, or match, the in-text citation with the entry on the References page (s).

  • Journalist’s Questions:  a method of using “Who, What, Where, When, Why, or How” to establish elements of a citation or to determine validity of a source.

  • Leading phrases: Also known as introductory tags or signal phrases; used in the body of a research paper to introduce source material, such as an author or a sponsor of the information or data being cited. Typically used when direct quotes are being integrated into the essay.
             Example:  According to Smith (2023), “APA is easy to learn” (p.19).

  • Parenthetical citation: An in-text citation format that employs parentheses at the end of a sentence to provide cross-referencing  information about a source. Typically used for summaries or paraphrases.
             Example: Experts indicate APA is quickly understood (Smith, 2023, p.19).

  • Peer-reviewed or Scholarly Articles: Journal or magazine articles that are published by a vetted publisher or professional organization; articles that have been written and/or reviewed by professionals within any given field of study.

  • Permalink: a dedicated hyperlink that will not change over time assigned to a specific resource.

  • Plagiarism: Intentionally or unintentionally neglecting to give credit for ideas, opinions, research, or data that is not your own.

  • References list: page(s) located at the end of an APA style research essay; includes all pertinent information regarding sources used in the body of the research paper in the form of alphabetized entries.