- Annotated Bibliography: an alphabetized working list of potential sources containing 1) a full Works Cited style citation for the source 2) an analysis and summary of the source material regarding its credibility, important points made by the authors or sponsors of the source, and its relevance to a particular student research project.
- Citations: information regarding source material used in a research essay; in-text citations are located in the essay itself, while Works Cited citations (also known as ‘entries’) are located at the end of the research paper.
- Cross-referencing: the method in which a researcher connects in-text citations with source information located on the Works Cited page (s).
- Databases: online aggregates of research and information, often located within a college library virtual platform.
- DOI or Director Object Identifier: a unique identification number assigned to source material, such as journal articles, which can be substituted for an URL or permalink in a Works CIted entry.
- Entry or Entries: a term used to describe each full citation listed on a Works Cited page.
- Full-Text: indicates a source is provided in its entirety, typically exactly as it was originally published.
- In-text citations: an abbreviated form of citation included in the body of an essay; the in-text citation matches the first word of the full Works Cited entry and allows readers to cross-reference, or match, the in-text citation with the entry on the Works Cited page.
- Journalist’s Questions: a method of using “Who, What, Where, When, Why, or How” to establish elements of a citation or to determine validity of a source.
- Leading phrases: Also known as introductory tags or signal phrases; used in the body of a research paper to introduce source material, such as an author or a sponsor of the information or data being cited. Typically used when direct quotes are being integrated into the essay.
Example: According to Smith, “MLA is easy to learn” (23).
- Parenthetical citation: An in-text citation format that employs parentheses at the end of a sentence to provide cross-referencing information about a source. Typically used for summaries or paraphrases.
Example: Experts indicate MLA is quickly understood (Smith 23).
- Peer-reviewed or Scholarly Articles: Journal or magazine articles that are published by a vetted publisher or professional organization; articles that have been written and/or reviewed by professionals within any given field of study.
- Permalink: a dedicated hyperlink that will not change over time assigned to a specific resource.
- Plagiarism: Intentionally or unintentionally neglecting to give credit for ideas, opinions, research, or data that is not your own.
- Works Cited: page(s) located at the end of an MLA style research essay; includes all pertinent information regarding sources used in the body of the research paper in the form of alphabetized entries.